HIV infection causes dysregulation of intestinal microbiota and leads to bacterial translocation of endotoxin into circulation, leading to immune activation and inflammation. Though anti-retroviral therapy (ART) reduces these events, it does not completely normalize gastrointestinal integrity. The extent of intestinal damage and the subsequent immune reaction have been linked to mortality in HIV. In a recent publication in PLoS One, scientists supplemented ART with probiotics and found significant reductions in the levels of immune activation markers, some to a level comparable with healthy controls. These results suggest that it may be possible to significantly improve prognosis in HIV patients with simple maintenance of the microbiota, such as probiotic supplementation and diet change.